İngilizce Konu Anlatımı ve Notlar – 8

VOCABULARY

above yukarısında a pleasure tarn! hayli
anyway nasılsa quite
to call çağırmak a road yol
deep derin several birkaç
to direct yol göstermek shallow sığ
to excuse bağışlamak short kısa
far uzak stores (ç.) mağazalar
foot (c, feet) ayak (ç. ayaklar) straight dümdüz
to happen olmak, yer almak tail uzun boylu
high yüksek thick kaim
a hill tepe thin zâyıf
an inch bir ölçü a tram tramvay
low alçak a turning dönemeç
a mile mil a view manzara
to miss kaçırmak to walk yürümek
a museum muze wide geniş
narrow dar a yard yarda (bir ölçü)

PHRASES:
Can you direct me to the Post-Office ? Postanenin yolunu gösterebilir misiniz ?
What is it called in English ? İngilizce’de ona ne deniyor ?
Keep straight up to the statue. Heykele kadar dosdoğru gidin.
You can’t miss it. Görmememize imkan yok.
It’s at least a mile away. En az bir mil uzakta.
At least. I’m not quite sure. En az. Tam da emin değilim.

CONVERSATION

(Benedict’ ler Edinburgh’da yol soruyor.)

JOHN                Excuse me – good morning! Can you direct me to Robert son’s Stores ?

MAN    Robertson’s Stores. Now, let me see. Oh yes, of course. Keep

straight along this road for about a quarter of a mile. Take the third turning on the right. I think it’s the third, but I’m not quite sure. Anyway, you can’t miss it, because it’s near a church. A narrow street, only twenty feet wide. The Stores are on the left, about a hundred yards down the road.

JOHN    So it isn’t very far from here ?

MAN    Oh, no, it’s about ten minutes’ walk. It’s a tall building, about

sixty feet high.

JOHN    Ah, the National Museum’s near there, too, isn’t it ?

MAN    Oh, no that’s a long way off. You had better take a bus. It’s at

least a mile away.

JOHN    Thank you.

HELEN    That hill is called “Arthur’s Seat” , isn’t it ?

MAN    Yes, that’s right.

HELEN    There must be a very fine view from up there!

MAN    Yes, it’s several hundred feet above the city.

JOHN    Well, thank you very much.

MAN    Not at all; it’s a pleasure.

HELEN    Do you know, I understood every word that man said !

JOHN    Well, of course you did – he wasn’t a Scotsman at all; we

happened to ask an Englishman the way!

NOTES

GRAMMAR

– Ölçüler ve ölçü ifadeleri

Yard aslında 91,44 santimetredir, 3 fit’in de karşılığıdır ( a foot, çoğulu feet = 30,48 cm.) Bir foot’ta 12 inç vardır ( an inch = 2,54 cm). Bir İngiliz mili 1.760 yard olup, metrik sistemdeki karşılığı 1 609 metredir.

Three feet make one yard ; there are 12 inches in one foot; there are 36 inches in a yard; 1 760 (one thousand, seven hundred and sixty) yards or 58280 (five thousand, two hundred and eighty) feet make one miie.

Mil, coğrafi uzaklıkları anlatmakta kul-lanılır.Yard’la kumaş ölçülür, ya da kısa coğrafi uzunluklar belirtilir. Foot ‘la yararlı ölçümler anlatılır, örneğin evin içindekiler gibi. Dağların yükseklikleri, nehirlerin derinliği, kişinin boyu da foot la söylenir. Sıfat sayılan ölçüler cümlede sıfattan evvel yer alırlar, Bu durumda, şöyle söylenecek demektir:

The room is twenty feet long. Oda yirmi fit boyunda.
It’s fifteen feet wide. On beş fit eninde.
It’s nine feet high. Dokuz fit yüksekliğinde.
My brother is five feet ten. Erkek kardeşim beş fit on inç boyunda.
The river is twelve feet deep. Nehir on iki fit derinliğinde.
The book is two inches thick. Kitap iki ine kalınlığında.
Kısaltmalar aşağıdaki gibidir:

1 m – 1 mile, 1 yd – 1 yard, 1 ft – 1 foot, 1 in. =1 inch

Şöyle söylenebilir:

How old is she ? – she’s 20. Kaç yaşında ? – 20.
He’s driving at thirty miles an hour. Otuz mil hızla gidiyor.
How long is it ? Uzunluğu ne kadar ?
He’s tall, but rather thin. Uzun boylu ama oldukça zayıf.
How high is the house ? Evin yüksekliği ne kadar ?
How tall is he ? Onun boyu kaç ?

Far da mesafe ifadesidir. Sıfat olarak, uzak anlamına gelir, en çok olumsuzlarda ve sorularda kullanılır. Olumlu cümlelerde a long way ifadesi tercih edilir.

How far is it to the station ? İstasyona yol ne kadar ?
It isn’t far to the museum. Müzeye yol uzak değil.
It’s a long way to the church. It isn’t far to the post-office. Kilise çok uzakta.
Postane uzak değil.
My house isn’t far off (far away). Evim uzak değil.
Şu ifadelerdeki edat ve zarfların kullanımına dikkat edelim
It’s a mile to the station. İstasyon bir mil ilerde.
The station is a mile away (off). İstasyon bir mil ilerde.
The bank is a mile from here. Banka buraya bir mil.
A hundred yards down the street. Yolun yüz yardajlerisinde.
Several hundred feet above the city. Kentin birkaç yüz fit yukarısında.
Half a mile up the road. Yolun yarım mil ilerisinde.
We were walking along the street. Sokak boyunca yürüyorduk.
Mesafenin ve zamanın ifadesinde her zaman iyelik eki kullanılır:
It’s a ten minutes’ walk. Yürüyerek on dakikalık yol.
It’s a mile’s walk. Bir millik yürüyüş yolu.
It’s a ten miles’ ride. Arabayla on millik yol.

Tekil halde, belgisiz belirtici bulunduğuna dikkat edelim :

–    Mustın bir başka kullanımı: Modal must İngilizce’de akıl yürütmeyi, bir güçlü inancı, yarı emin olma durumunu belirtmek için de kullanılır:

Did you hear? It must be John.    Duydunuz mu ? John olmalı.

There must be a fine view from up there. Oradan manzara güzel olmalı. Dikkat: Bu yukardaki yapının olumsuzu can’t ile ifade edilir:

It can’t be very far from here.    Buradan çok uzakta olamaz.

–    Modal ifadede bugünlük yalnızca olumlusunu kullanacağımız şu kalıba dikkat edelim:

You had better take a tram.    Tramvaya binsen iyi edersin.

She’d better see a doctor.    Bir doktora gitse iyi eder.

You’d better stop at a garage.    Bir tamirhanede dursan iyi olur.

Called kelimesi, to call‘ (çağırmak, seslenmek, adlandırılmak) un past parti-ciple’ıdır. Zayıf fiillerin past participle ‘ı -ed takılarak olur. Pasif (edilgen) formu to be yardımıyla yapılır ve İngilizce’de çok kullanılır:

It’s called “Arthur’s Seat” .    Oraya “Arthur’s Seat” denir.

EXERCISES

EXERCISE 1. Answer these questions :

1. How many inches are there in half a yard ? 2. How many yards are there in half a mile ? 3. About how many miles are there in 48 kilometres ? 4.1 walk a mile along the road from my house, and then 1 320 yards back. How far am I from my house ?

5. A man is seventy one inches tall. How .tall is he in feet and inches ?

EXERCISE 2. Listen to the first example,them make sentences in the same way:

He, tall …    He isn’t tall, is he ?

1. It, far. 2. You, hungry. 3. We, late. 4. It, raining. 5. You, tired.

EXERCISE 3. Listen to the first examples, them make sentences in the same way:

River, twelve    ’    The river is twelve feet deep.

Wall, nine …    The wall is nine feet high.

1. Man, six. 2. road, twenty (wide).

EXERCISE 4. Repeat these directions to make a very long sentence :

1. Keep straight along the road (then take the second turning on the right). 2. Keep straight along the road, then take the second turning on the right (then take the third on the left). 2. Keep straight along the road, then take the second turning on the right, then take the third one on the left (then keep straight along the canal for half a mile). 3. Keep straight along the road, then take the second turning on the right, then take the third one on the left,, then keep straight along the canal for half a mile.

(You must repeat this long sentence without a stop ! Invent (uydurun) other situations).

EXERCISE 5. Build short dialogues as follows :

Station, mile ….    How far is it to the station ?

– Oh, it’s about a mile, I think 1. Church, half a mile. 2. Pub, 300 yards.

EXERCISE 6. Change as follows :

See a doctor. …    You’d better see a doctor.

Let him see a doctor…………..He’d better see a doctor.

1. Let us stop at a garage. 2. Let them ask this gentleman. 3. Ask this man where the Stores are. 4. Let him write to the bank. 5. Read this book.

EXERCISE 7. Say the contrary, as follows :

It’s a long way from the house…… It isn’t far from the house.

It isn’t far from the house……….It’s a long way from the house.

1. It’s a long way to the museum. 2. The hill isn’t far from the river. 3. It is a long way from the station. 4. The post office is a long way off.

I sent a book to the doctor.    I sent it to the doctor.

I sent a book to the doctor.    I sent him a book.

1.1 sent a postcard to my sister. 2. He’ll send the letter to the bank. 3. She gave her brother a record. 4. I’ll give your friends a few newspapers.

1. Where are the Benedicts ? 2. Where do they want to go ? 3. How can you go to Robertson’s ? 4. Is it near the church ? 5. Is it a wide street ? 6. Is the National Museum near the stores ? 7. What is the hill called ? 8/ How high is it ? 9. Why did Helen understand the man ?