İngilizce Konu Anlatımı ve Notlar – 3

VOCABULARY

to answer cevap vermek a king krai
anything herhangi bir şey a passport pasaport
to ask sormak the police polis
a case vaka, olay slowly yavaş yavaş
to forget unutmak something bir şey
funny komik specially özellikle
to go on devam etmek to thank teşekkür etmek
to go past yanından geçmek through içinden
a head baş a ticket bilet
to hoot korna çalmak valuable değerli

WORDS AND PHRASES:

Last week, next week Geçen hafta, gelecek hafta
Yesterday afternoon, last night Dün öğleden sonra, dün gece
In any case. Herhalde (ne olursa olsun)
Nothing at all. Hiçbir şey değil.
Something funny happened. Komik bir şey oldu.
Well now. Eee, Şu işe bak.

CONVERSATION

(Benedicfler Oxford dönüşü yolculuklarını anlatmayı sürdürüyorlar.)

HELEN After we left the pub, and were on the way home, something funny happened.

TOM Oh! What was that!

HELEN A car came up behind us, and began hooting. We didn’t

know who it was. John thought it was the police. The driver went on hooting. John drove slowly, and the other car went past and stopped. The driver got out.

TOM And you knew him ?

HELEN No, we didn;t know him at all. We sat and waited. He came up to us and looked through the window. “Good evening,” he said; “Did you have ‘a meal at King’s Head ?” (That was the name of the pub.) “Yes, we did,” John answered. “Oh, that’s good, you are the right people. Well, you forgot your handbag, madam ! So I brought it with me – here it is.” And he gave me my bag. I thanked him, and asked, “Did you come after us specially? ” “No,” he said, “I’m driving to London in any case.” Well, now, wasn’t that lucky ?

TOM Was there anything valuable in the bag ?

HELEN It had all my money, my passport, and our tickets to Scotland in it.

TOM Then you really were’ lucky!

NOTES

STRESS AND INTONATION

1 – : Passport, ticket, Scotland, specially -2 : police, forget, forgot, forgotten GRAMMAR

-Düzensiz fiillerin geçmiş zamanlan :

Geçniş zaman biçimini ayrıca ezberlemek gereken tüm fiilleri bu başlik altında toplayacağız.

– Güçlü fiiller dediğimiz bu fiillerde geçmiş zaman, kökteki sesli harfi değiştirerek yapılır:

to begin, I began; to come, I came; to drive, I drove; to get, I got; to forget, I forgot; to give, I gave; to know, I knew; to sit, I sat

-Zayıf fiiller (yani -ed ekiyle geçmiş zaman olanlar) ise bir takım yazılış ya da söyleniş değişikliklerine tabidir:

to say, I said; to have, I had; to leave, I left

-karma fiiller de hem ses açısından değişim gösterir, hem de biçim açısından : to bring, brought; to think, thought gibi.Bunlardan bazıları geçmiş zamana dönüşürken kökleri de değişir: to go, went.

Fiilin bu geçmiş zamandaki hali tüm kişiler için aynıdır. Geçmiş zamanda olumsuz ve soru da, tabii ki did ve didn’t kullanılarak yapılır:

Did she give you her address ? Sana adresini verdi mi ?
He didn’t thank them. Onlara teşekkür etmedi,

– Bu kipin kısa cevabı aşağıdaki biçimde olacaktır:

Did you see them – No, I didn’t. Onları gördün mü ? -H^r,göımedm. Did she give the cheque – Yes, she did. Çeki verdi mi ? – Evet, verdi. -Olumsuz-soru cümlesinde ise bir ünlem niteliği bulunabilir:

Wasn t that lucky ! Buna şans
Isn’t she pretty! Ne kadar g

– To begin (başlamak), to go on (devam etmek) ve to stop (durmak) fiillerini genellikle -inğ takılmış bir başka fiil izler:

She began talkını 3 about the tour. G ezıden soz etmeye başladı.
Go on reading, pi lease. 0 kumaya devam edin lütfen.

Ama aşağıdaki biçimleri birbirine karıştırmamak gerekir:

Stop drinking, you are the driver. İçmeyi kes, sürücü sensin.
We stopped to drink on the way back. Dönüş yolunda bir şey içmek
için durduk.

– Bugün bir takım bileşik fiillerle karşılaşacağız : go on (devam etmek), go past (yanından geçmek, get in ve tersi get out (taşıta binmek, girmek ve taşıttan çıkmak, irimek). Bir yere girip çıkmak konusunda her zaman go in ve go out kullanılmalıdır. Come up ise konuşan kişiye yaklaşma anlamı taşır:

He came up to me after the meeting. Toplantıdan sonra yanıma yaklaştı.

-Dolaylı soru yapısını doğrudan soruyla bir kere daha karşılaştıralım :

Who was that man ? 0 adam kimdi ?
1 don’t know who he was. Bilmiyorum kimdi

-Hareket gösteren edatlar yalnızca somut mekan değişikliğinde kullanılıyor değildir. Yer değişimi zihinsel veya hayali olduğu zaman da kullanılır:

The train to Glasgow. Glasgow treni.
Our tickets to Scotland. İskoçya biletlerimiz
He looked through the window. Pencereden baktı.

– Some ye any kelimeleri -thing’le ve -body ile birleşerek bileşik isim oluştururlar :

There’s something on the table. Masanın üstünde bir şey var.
Somebody was at the door. Kapıda biri vardı.

Görülüyor ki some kelimesiyle bileşenler hep olumlu cümlede kullanılıyor. Buna karşılık soruda ve olumsuzda any bileşikleri kullanılır:

Was there anything in that bag ? Bu çantada bir şey var mıydı ?
Is there an iybody in this shop ? Bu dükkanda kimse var mİ ?

– Last ( son, geçen) ile next (ertesi, gelecek) kelimelerinden Önce belirtici kullanılmaz :

Last week, last Sunday. Geçen hafta, geçen*Pazar.
Next Thursday, next year. Gelecek Perşembe, gelecek yıl.

EXERCISES

EXERCISE 1. Re-express as follows :

I think he is at home……….I thought he was at home.

1. She thinks you are English. 2. I know they usually go to that pub. 3. We think you usually sit in this corner. 4. He says you drive very fast. 5. She knows they leave the office at 6 o’clock. 6.1 hope he is at the station. EXERCISE 2. Build sentences as follows*:

I liked the journey; the rain.    I liked the journey, but Ididn’t

like the rain.

1. I waited for you; Tom. 2.1 brought the sugar; the milk. 3.1 left the hotel; the city. 4. I borrowed some money; the car. 5. I forgot the letter; the address. EXERCISE 3. Build sentences, as follows :

To write a letter, to begin…… He began writing a letter.

1. To read the newspaper, to begin. 2. To smoke cigarettes, to stop.

3. To ask questions, to go on. 4. To hoot, to begin.

5.    To speak about the journey, to begin.

EXERCISE 4. Express these in the past, as suggested here :

I think he is at home today. .. I thought he was at home today.

He is coming tomorrow. …    He came yesterday.

1. Our holiday begins today. 2.’ Who is driving the car ? 3.1 always get up at

6.    4. The police know his name. 5. That girl always forgets her money. 6.

Are you giving that man a cheque ? 7. The old man sits on this seat. 8. She doesn’t bring her books with her. 9. I think he is leaving on Friday. 10. We usually have breakfast at eight.

EXERCISE 5. Re-express these in the affirmative, as follows :

He didn’t come…………He came.

1. We didn’t have a good holiday. 2. I didn’t know you were here. 3. He didn’t go with them. 4. The guests didn’t bring any food. 5. I didn’t forget to take my licence. 6. You didn’t give me much time. 7. The students didn’t say “Good morning”. 8. They didn’t begin their work at nine o’clock. 9. The dog didn’t come at once. 10. You didn’t leave any cigarettes in the packet.

EXERCISE 6. Answer these questions on the conversation :

1. What happened ön the way back ? 2. Did they know the man ? 3. Was he the police ? 4.What did John do ? 5. What did the man ask ?

6. What did Heien forget ? 7. Why was it lucky ?